Многообразие проявлений причинно-следственных связей в материальном мире обусловило существование нескольких моделей причинно-следственных отношений. Исторически сложилось так, что любая модель этих отношений может быть сведена к одному из двух основных типов моделей или их сочетанию.

Смягчение воды методом ионного обмена

At the same time, depending on рН and alkalinity, water with rigidity of 4 mg-ecv/l can above cause in distributive system adjournment of slags and scums (a carbonate of calcium), is especial at heating. For this reason norms of Boiler inspection enter very rigid requirements to size of rigidity of the water used for a meal of boilers (0.05-0.1 mg-ecv/l). Besides at interaction of salts of rigidity with washing substances (the soap, detergent powders, shampoos) occurs formation of "soap slags" as foam. It results not only in the significant overexpenditure of washing-up liquids. Such foam after drying remains as a strike on the sanitary technician, linen, a human skin, on hair (unpleasant feeling of "rigid" hair well-known to much). The main negative influence of these slags on the person is that they destroy a natural fatty film with which the normal skin is always covered and hammer its time. An attribute of such negative influence is characteristic "scratch" of cleanly washed up skin or hair. It appears, that the irritation causing in some people feeling "soapiness" after using soft water is an attribute of that the protective fatty film on a skin is whole and safe. It also slides.

At the same time, it is necessary to mention and other side of a medal. Soft water with rigidity less than 2 mg-ecv/l has low buffer capacity (alcalinity) and can, depending on a level рН and of some other factors, render the increasedcorrosive attack to water pipes. Therefore, in a number of applications (it is especial in the heating engineer) sometimes it is necessary to carry out special processing of water with the purpose of achievement of an optimum ratio between rigidity of water and its corrosion activity.

EXPERIMENTAL PART

The adsorption processes including both processes cleanly including physical, and the processes conducting to formation of new chemical substances are rather various. Processes concern to them ion-exchange chromatographies proceeding between ionits and solutions of electrolit also.

Due to the universality and these processes have found of flexibility wide application in analytical chemistry, food and an iron and steel industry, in power system, water-preparation and in many other areas of a science and technics(technical equipment), and now supersede from an industrial practice other methods sorption [1-3]. Despite of the big assortment industrial ionits, the majority of them, especially, condensation type differ such low parameters, as low speed sorption, small stability to thermal, chemical influences, etc. It limits opportunities and spheres of their application [4,5].

By us it is received new monofunctional sulphocationite on the basis of interaction of styrene with an accessible and cheap waste of agricultural and cotton scraping industries.

Sorption abilities of sulphocationite to ions of calcium, magnesium, copper, nickel carried out research from 0.1N solutions of СаСl2, MgCl2, CuSO4 and NiSO4. Sorption of calcium and magnesium determined by trilonometric, copper by iodometric, nickel by photocolorimetric methods [10,11].

According to the literary data, polymers and ion-exchangers, received on the basis of derivatives of furan differ from raised thermal and chemical stability and mechanical durability [5,6]. The basic properties of received sulphocationite are submitted in table 1.

Table 1

The main physical and chemical parameters of received sulphocationite

Parameters

Values

1.

Bulk weight, g/ml

0.68

2.

Specific volume of bulk cationit in Н-form, ml/g

3.5

3.

Static exchange capacity, in mg - ecv/g, on:

 
 

0.1N. solution of NaOH

5,2

 

0.1N. solution of NaCl

4.5

 

0.1N. solution of СaCl2

Н-form

4.2

Nа-form

4.8

 

0.1N. solution of MgCl2

Н-form

3.0

Nа-form

3.8

 

0.1 N. solution of СuSO4

Н-form

2.6

Nа-form

3.0

 

0.1 N. solution of NiSO4

Н-form

2.15

Nа-form

2.34

4.

Mechanical durability

99 %

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